sábado, 29 de octubre de 2016

Real World Missed Approaches – 6 Tips For Staying Safe

I recently flew one of the rarest maneuvers in aviation: a real missed approach in instrument conditions. While we all practice them during initial instrument training and (hopefully) as a part of regular proficiency flights, actual missed approaches are pretty rare. The combination of widely available WAAS approaches and in-flight weather tools means that we usually have a pretty good idea we will get in before starting an approach.
Don’t cheat – you either see the runway environment or you don’t.
Not so on this day. The weather wasn’t terrible, but a low cloud layer sparked by isolated rain showers made it tricky. The METAR was fluctuating from just above minimums to just below minimums, so we decided to take a shot. Unfortunately, at the missed approach point there were no lights so the power came up and we diverted to our alternate.
Simple, right? Not so much.
While I was intellectually prepared for a missed approach, I really wasn’t emotionally prepared (spring-loaded, as my instrument instructor might have said). I hadn’t done this for real in years. So when it came time to execute this seemingly simple maneuver, I ended up getting behind the airplane just a bit. I was coping, not flying. You might call it the three stages of the missed approach mindset: shock at having to go around, a feeling of being overwhelmed by all the tasks that needed to be completed, and finally a temptation to try it again. None of these are good.
To combat that mindset, here are a few rules I made for myself:
  • Use the autopilot. While you should be able to hand fly an approach down to minimums, that doesn’t mean you have to do it every time. When it’s really low, I think it’s much safer to let the autopilot fly. That makes you management, not labor, so you can keep the big picture in mind and be ready to react. It’s hard to be spring-loaded to go around if you’re task-saturated and busy keeping the wings level.
  • Plan ahead – and don’t change your mind. Cruise flight is a good time to make a plan for your approach and potential missed approach procedure. Think through exactly what the approach sequence will look like: what power settings will you use, what descent rate will you use, what are you looking for at DA/MDA and what is the first thing you’ll do if you go missed? Talk it through before you get busy and commit to this plan.
  • Don’t cheat – don’t even hesitate. Easier said than done, but it’s critical to stay disciplined here. On my missed approach, we saw glimpses of the ground right as we started the missed approach. But this was a sucker hole – we could see down, but not ahead to the runway. Don’t dive for a hole, don’t “go down another 50 feet,” and don’t drive on passed the MAP in the hopes that something miraculous will happen. Stick to the plan. There is no gray area here and no negotiation: land the airplane because you see the runway environment at minimums or go around.
  • Approach lights matter. I once knew the difference between REIL, MALSR and all the rest of the approach lighting systems, but I long ago forgot the particulars. These may seem like academic nuances, but on a low approach, briefing the approach lighting system and knowing what to expect can make a big difference. In my case, the runway only had the two REILs, which are not nearly as visible as a full “rabbit.”
  • Climb and maintain control; the rest can wait. When you decide to execute the missed approach, it’s time to climb – now. Don’t mess with the GPS and don’t look at the approach chart. The essential first step is to add power and climb out quickly, while keeping the airplane under control. If you’ve briefed your approach (and your missed approach), you already know what to do. ATC can wait, your passengers can wait and even your avionics can wait until you’ve started climbing and are stabilized.
  • No second approaches. It’s so tempting to come back around for another try, especially if you saw one of those sucker holes at minimums. Don’t do it. The accident record shows that second approaches often end badly, because the temptation to cheat is very strong. Unless you did something badly wrong on the first approach, don’t even give yourself the opportunity to mess up on round two.
Although we don’t usually think of it that way, the missed approach is really a maximum performance maneuver. In the span of about 60 seconds – and at very low altitude – you are forced to climb at Vy, change the aircraft configuration, reprogram the GPS and talk on the radio. All this while maintaining control in the clouds. The key is to make your decisions long before you ever start the approach, so a missed approach is an automatic reaction. MDA is no time to be making decisions; it’s a time for executing what you’ve already planned.
And as always, fly the freakin’ airplane!

Aporte Piloto Alejandro Latorre

viernes, 28 de octubre de 2016

jueves, 27 de octubre de 2016

V speeds

A single-engine Cessna 150L's airspeed indicator indicating its V speeds.
A flight envelope diagram showing VS (stall speed at 1G), VC (corner/maneuvering speed) and VD (dive speed)
In aviationV-speeds are standard terms used to define airspeeds important or useful to the operation of all aircraft. These speeds are derived from data obtained by aircraft designers and manufacturers during flight testing and verified in most countries by government flight inspectors during aircraft type-certification testing. Using them is considered a best practice to maximize aviation safety, aircraft performance or both.
The actual speeds represented by these designators are specific to a particular model of aircraft. They are expressed by the aircraft'sindicated airspeed (and not by, for example, the ground speed), so that pilots may use them directly, without having to apply correction factors, as aircraft instruments also show indicated airspeed.
In general aviation aircraft, the most commonly used and most safety-critical airspeeds are displayed as color-coded arcs and lines located on the face of an aircraft's airspeed indicator. The lower ends of the green arc and the white arc are the stalling speed with wing flaps retracted, and stalling speed with wing flaps fully extended, respectively. These are the stalling speeds for the aircraft at its maximum weight.The yellow range is the range in which the aircraft may be operated in smooth air, and then only with caution to avoid abrupt control movement, and the red line is the Vne, the never exceed speed.
Proper display of V speeds is an airworthiness requirement for type-certificated aircraft in most countries.Regulation
The most common V-speeds are often defined by a particular government's aviation regulations. In the United States, these are defined in title 14 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations, known as the Federal Aviation Regulations or FARs. In Canada, the regulatory body, Transport Canada, defines 26 commonly used V-speeds in their Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM).V-speed definitions in FAR 23, 25 and equivalent are for designing and certification of airplanes, not for their operational use. The descriptions below are for use by pilots.

Regulatory V-speeds

These V-speeds are defined by regulations. Some of the descriptions provided are simplified.
V-speed designatorDescription
V1The speed beyond which the takeoff should no longer be aborted. 
V2Takeoff safety speed. The speed at which the aircraft may safely be climbed with one engine inoperative.
V2minMinimum takeoff safety speed.
V3Flap retraction speed.
V4Steady initial climb speed. The all engines operating take-off climb speed used to the point where acceleration to flap retraction speed is initiated. Should be attained by a gross height of 400 feet.
VADesign maneuvering speed. This is the speed above which it is unwise to make full application of any single flight control (or "pull to the stops") as it may generate a force greater than the aircraft's structural limitations.
VatIndicated airspeed at threshold, which is usually equal to the stall speed VS0 multiplied by 1.3 or stall speed VS1g multiplied by 1.23 in the landing configuration at the maximum certificated landing mass, though some manufacturers apply different criteria. If both VS0 and VS1g are available, the higher resulting Vat shall be applied.Also called "approach speed".
VBDesign speed for maximum gust intensity.
VCDesign cruise speed, used to show compliance with gust intensity loading.
VcefSee V1; generally used in documentation of military aircraft performance.
VDDesign diving speed, the highest speed planned to be achieved in testing.
VDFDemonstrated flight diving speed, the highest actual speed achieved in testing.
VEFThe speed at which the critical engine is assumed to fail during takeoff.
VFDesigned flap speed.
VFCMaximum speed for stability characteristics.
VFEMaximum flap extended speed.
VFTOFinal takeoff speed.
VHMaximum speed in level flight at maximum continuous power.
VLEMaximum landing gear extended speed. This is the maximum speed at which a retractable gear aircraft should be flown with the landing gear extended.
VLOMaximum landing gear operating speed. This is the maximum speed at which the landing gear on a retractable gear aircraft should be extended or retracted.
VLOFLift-off speed.
VMCMinimum control speed. Mostly used as the minimum control speed for the takeoff configuration (takeoff flaps). Several VMCs exist for different flight phases and airplane configurations: VMCG, VMCA, VMCA1, VMCA2, VMCL, VMCL1, VMCL2. Refer to the minimum control speed article for a thorough explanation.
VMCAMinimum control speed in the air (or airborne). The minimum speed at which steady straight flight can be maintained when an engine fails or is inoperative and with the corresponding opposite engine set to provide maximum thrust, provided a small (3° - 5°) bank angle is being maintained away from the inoperative engine and the rudder is used up to maximum to maintain straight flight. The exact required bank angle for VMCA to be valid should be provided by the manufacturer with VMC(A) data; any other bank angle results in a higher actual VMC(A). Refer to the minimum control speed article for a description of (pilot-induced) factors that have influence on VMCA. VMCA is also presented as VMC in many manuals.
VMCGMinimum control speed on the ground is the lowest speed at which the takeoff may be safely continued following an engine failure during the takeoff run. Below VMCG, the throttles need to be closed at once when an engine fails, to avoid veering off the runway.
VMCLMinimum control speed in the landing configuration with one engine inoperative.
VMOMaximum operating limit speed.
VMUMinimum unstick speed.
VNENever exceed speed.
VNOMaximum structural cruising speed or maximum speed for normal operations.
VOMaximum operating maneuvering speed.
VRRotation speed. The speed at which the pilot begins to apply control inputs to cause the aircraft nose to pitch up, after which it will leave the ground.
VrotUsed instead of VR (in discussions of the takeoff performance of military aircraft) to denote rotation speed in conjunction with the term Vref (refusal speed).
VRefLanding reference speed or threshold crossing speed.
(In discussions of the takeoff performance of military aircraft, the term Vref stands for refusal speed. Refusal speed is the maximum speed during takeoff from which the air vehicle can stop within the available remaining runway length for a specified altitude, weight, and configuration.) Incorrectly, or as an abbreviation, some documentation refers to Vref and/or Vrot speeds as "Vr."
VSStall speed or minimum steady flight speed for which the aircraft is still controllable.
VS0Stall speed or minimum flight speed in landing configuration.
VS1Stall speed or minimum steady flight speed for which the aircraft is still controllable in a specific configuration.
VSRReference stall speed.
VSR0Reference stall speed in landing configuration.
VSR1Reference stall speed in a specific configuration.
VSWSpeed at which the stall warning will occur.
VTOSSCategory A rotorcraft takeoff safety speed.
VXSpeed that will allow for best angle of climb.
VYSpeed that will allow for the best rate of climb.

Other V-speeds

Some of these V-speeds are specific to particular types of aircraft and are not defined by regulations.
V-speed designatorDescription
VBEBest endurance speed – the speed that gives the greatest airborne time for fuel consumed.
VBGBest power-off glide speed – the speed that provides maximum lift-to-drag ratio and thus the greatest gliding distance available.
VBRBest range speed – the speed that gives the greatest range for fuel consumed – often identical to Vmd.
VFSFinal segment of a departure with one powerplant failed.
VimdMinimum drag
VimpMinimum power
VLLOMaximum landing light operating speed – for aircraft with retractable landing lights.
VmbeMaximum brake energy speed
VmdMinimum drag (per lift) – often identical to VBR. (alternatively same as Vimd
VminMinimum speed for instrument flight (IFR) for helicopters
VmpMinimum power
VmsMinimum sink speed at median wing loading - the speed at which the minimum descent rate is obtained. In modern gliders, Vms and Vmc have evolved to the same value.
VpAquaplaning speed
VPDMaximum speed at which whole-aircraft parachute deployment has been demonstrated
VraRough air speed (turbulence penetration speed).
VSLStall speed in a specific configuration
Vs1gStall speed at 1g load factor
VsseSafe single engine speed
VtThreshold speed
VTDTouchdown speed
VTGTTarget speed
VTOTake-off speed. (see also VLOF)
VtocsTake-off climbout speed (helicopters)
VtosMinimum speed for a positive rate of climb with one engine inoperative
VtmaxMax threshold speed
VwoMaximum window or canopy open operating speed
VXSEBest angle of climb speed with a single operating engine in a light, twin-engine aircraft – the speed that provides the most altitude gain per unit of horizontal distance following an engine failure, while maintaining a small bank angle that should be presented with the engine-out climb performance data.
VYSEBest rate of climb speed with a single operating engine in a light, twin-engine aircraft – the speed that provides the most altitude gain per unit of time following an engine failure, while maintaining a small bank angle that should be presented with the engine-out climb performance data.
VZRCZero rate of climb speed in a twin-engine aircraft

Mach numbers

Whenever a limiting speed is expressed by a Mach number, it is expressed relative to the speed of sound, e.g. VMO: Maximum operating speed, MMO: Maximum operating Mach number.

V1 definitions

V1 is the critical engine failure recognition speed or takeoff decision speed. It is the speed above which the takeoff will continue even if an engine fails or another problem occurs, such as a blown tire.The speed will vary among aircraft types and varies according to factors such as aircraft weight, runway length, wing flap setting, engine thrust used and runway surface contamination, thus it must be determined by the pilot before takeoff. Aborting a takeoff after V1 is strongly discouraged because the aircraft will by definition not be able to stop before the end of the runway, thus suffering a "runway overrun".

martes, 25 de octubre de 2016


"Los líderes se distinguen de los demás por su constante apetito de conocimientos y experiencias, y a medida que su mundo se amplía y se vuelve más complejo, sus medios de comprensión también se multiplican y se refinan".

                                                       Warren Bennis 

lunes, 24 de octubre de 2016

Airspeed Limitations, Manoeuvring Speeds and Performance

Alphabet Soup Aviation V-Speeds
Alphabet Soup Aviation Acronyms V-Speeds
Alphabet Soup?

Aviation Acronyms can seem like Alphabet Soup!
With Airspeeds and V-Speeds, there are dozens of Aviation Acronyms for the student pilot to learn and remember. Your Aviation Acronym Decoder begins with some talk about Velocity.
V is for Speed
The “V” is from the French word ‘Vitesse’ which means ‘speed’ or ‘rate’. Important aviation Airspeeds are identified and defined using standard terms. Scientists and Engineers refer to Airspeeds as ‘V’ Speeds. Commonly, people think in terms of “Velocity”, and it is a nice memory aid, as “Velocity” begins with “V”. But, technically “Velocity” is defined as “Speed in a particular direction”. So, as a memory aid, you may loosely think of “V-Speeds” as “Velocity Speeds”, but to be more accurate, the ‘V’ is for ‘Vitesse’. V-Speeds are Airspeeds defined for specific maneuvers in specific aircraft at specific configurations.
Aircraft designers and manufacturers perform flight tests to help determine performance limitations of aircraft. The resulting flight test data is used to help determine specific best practice speeds for safe operation of the aircraft. Recommended Airspeeds (V-Speeds) are published and these airspeeds are relied on for best performance and safety of the aircraft. Pilots should be knowledgeable about the published V-Speeds for each type and configuration of aircraft they fly.
Pilot’s Operating Handbook
Pilots should consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook, or POH, for the aircraft they fly. These important V-Speeds will be published in the POH (Information Manual) for their specific Aircraft type and model.
Airspeed Indicator Cessna 172

Airspeed Indicator Cessna 172
Airspeed Indicator
Fortunately, the Airspeed Indicator in your airplane will have some of the more important V-Speeds highlighted or emphasized directly on the dial of the flight instrument. This helps the pilot to visually recognize these V-Speeds and easily determine how close they are to the V-Speeds while in flight.
General aviation aircraft depict the most commonly-used and most safety-critical airspeeds or V-Speeds on the Airspeed Indicator. These are displayed as color-coded arcs and lines located on the face of an aircraft’s airspeed indicator flight instrument.
White, Green, Yellow and Red
You will notice the colour-coded bands or arcs on the Airspeed Indicator. Pictured is a sample ‘Steam Gauge’ Airspeed Indicator. Let’s take a closer look, to determine some of these important V-Speeds. Remember, this is just an example, and the V-Speeds will differ based on the exact type, model and configuration of aircraft you fly.
The White Arc
The Flaps Operating Range is denoted by the White Arc. Flaps may only be used within this range of speeds.
The beginning of the White Arc is the power off Stalling Speed with gear and full flaps extended, also known as Vs0. The Vs0 (Velocity Stall 0) represents the Stalling Speed of the aircraft configured for landing. (i.e. Gear Down and Flaps Down) An easy way to remember this is to think of the Velocity (V) of Stall (s) with everything hanging Out (0) or Vs0.
Vs and Vs1
Now that you are familiar with Vs0, it’s easy to remember Vs1. The beginning of the Green Arc is the power off Stalling Speed with the Gear and Flaps retracted. Vs is the Velocity (V) of the Stall (s), or minimum steady flight speed for which the aircraft is still controllable. As a memory aid, Vs1 is the Velocity (V) of the Stall (s) with everything Inside (1 looks like the letter i for inside). This is the Stall speed or minimum steady flight speed for which the aircraft is still controllable in a specific configuration.
The lower ends of the Green Arc and the White Arc depict the stalling speed with wing flaps retracted (Vs1), and stalling speed with wing flaps fully extended (Vs0), respectively. These Vs (Velocity of Stall) speeds are the stalling speeds for the aircraft at its maximum weight.
The Top of the White Arc depicts the Maximum Flap Extended Speed. This is referred to as Vfe for Velocity (V) with Flaps (f) Extended (e). This represents the maximum airspeed at which you may extend the flaps, or fly with them extended. The flaps may not be used above this range (White Arc) or possible structural damage may occur to the aircraft.
The Green Arc
The Green Arc on the Airspeed Indicator depicts the normal operating airspeed range. As we have learned, Vs is the Velocity (V) of the Stall (s) and the Vs or Vs1 speed is denoted by the beginning of the Green Arc. At the top end of the Green Arc, is the Vno.
As the Green Arc is the Normal Operating Range, the top of the green arc is the Velocity (V) of Normal (n) Operations (o) or Vno. This is the maximum structural cruising speed. Operation of the Aircraft at the Vno speed, and lower, is within the certified range for operations within gusts. The aircraft is certified to withstand substantial wind gusts without experiencing structural damage. Operations above Vno move into the Yellow Arc on the Airspeed Indicator. Do not exceed Vno, except in Smooth Air, and only with caution.

Aircraft V-Speeds

Airspeed Indicator with V-Speeds Designated

Airspeed Indicator: V-Speeds
V-Speeds Designated
The Airspeed Indicator Flight Instrument shown here has some of the V-Speeds high-lighted. Standard colours and markings help pilots to immediately identify some of these very important V-Speeds. Click on the Airspeed Indicator for a larger view.
The Yellow Arc
Beyond the Green Arc, we see the Yellow Arc. The speed range marked by the Yellow Arc is the Caution Speed Range. The Airspeed range indicated by the Yellow Arc is for Smooth Air Only.
Operations above Vno (Top of the Green Arc) will bring you into the Caution Range of the Yellow Arc. Flight Operations in the Yellow speed range are to be conducted in Smooth Air only!
The Red Line at the top of the Yellow Arc is the Velocity (V) that you Never (n) Exceed (e). This is the Red Line of the Airspeed Indicator, and the Vne is the Maximum Speed the Aircraft should ever be operated in Smooth Air. Remember, the Yellow Arc is for Smooth Air Only. You should not exceed the Green Arc speed range unless the Air is Smooth and without gusts. Exceeding the Vne Airspeed can cause uncontrollable and destructive flutter, and cause serious or catastrophic failure of structural components on the aircraft. Aircraft designers include a slight safety margin, but do not risk or rely on this slim margin. The Vne is the Velocity (V) you Never (n) Exceed (e).
Other V-Speeds
There are other important V-Speeds, but they are not shown on the Airspeed Indicator Flight Instrument. The Pilot will need to be familiar with these other speeds, but they can’t simply look at the Airspeed Dial to determine these other V-Speeds.
Manoeuvring Speed is found well below Vno. Manoeuvring Speed may be remembered as Velocity (V) of Acceleration (a) or Va. The pilot should not make full or abrupt control movements above this speed. In turbulence, you should always be at, or below, the Manoeuvring Speed (Va). The only way to ensure you will not damage the aircraft with full or abrupt control movement is to fly at or below this speed.
Retractable Gear Aircraft
Most student pilots will learn to fly on airplanes with fixed landing gear. However, if you fly an aircraft with Retractable Landing Gear, you will need to be aware of two more important V-Speeds. These are Vlo and Vle.
Vlo is the Maximum Velocity (V) for Landing (l) gear Operation (o). Do not extend or retract the landing gear above this airspeed. When the landing gear is in transition, it is more vulnerable to damage from the effects of speed. However, once the landing gear is fully extended and locked, it may sustain higher airspeeds.
Vle is the Maximum Velocity (V) of Landing (l) gear Extended (e). Do not exceed this speed with the landing gear extended.
Garmin G1000 Glass Cockpit - Primary Flight Display - PFD

Garmin G1000 Glass Cockpit
Glass Cockpits
The newer Glass Cockpits are ideal for presenting tremendous amounts of critical data to the Pilot in an organized and familiar manner.
This Garmin G1000 Primary Flight Display (PFD) may not look too much like the older Six Pack of‘Steam Gauge’ Flight Instruments, but there are still many similarities. For instance, the Pilot previously accustomed to the Airspeed Indicator Dial will find similar colour coding on the Airspeed Indicator Tape Strip. Click on the glass cockpit image for a larger view.
Tape Strip
The Airspeed is typically indicated by a Tape Strip (Left Side of Glass Panel) that moves up and down to depict the Airspeed. The current speed is shown as a digital number. However, you will also see the familiar Green and Yellow Bars. From this familiar colour coding, the pilot can easily visualize some of these critical V-Speeds. The Glass Cockpit technology is incredible, and the pilot will be provided with considerable additional information including Ground Speed calculations and True Air Speed (TAS) calculations. You’ll learn more about TAS as you continue reading below.
Vx and Vy
Two easily confused Airspeeds are Vx and Vy. The student pilot must have these important airspeeds committed to memory very early in their flight instruction. These airspeeds will be demonstrated and explained. They are Best Rate of Climb (Vy) and Best Angle of Climb (Vx).
Best Rate of Climb (Vy)
After takeoff, the aircraft should normally be configured for the Best Rate of Climb. This will provide the best climb for the maximum gain in altitude in the shortest time possible. You will get to your selected cruising altitude in the shortest time possible. Altitude is your friend, and particularly after takeoff, you want to gain the maximum height above the ground in the least time possible. Vy provides you with the Best Rate of Climb.
Best Angle of Climb (Vx)
Occasionally, it may be necessary to gain the maximum altitude possible over the shortest distance on the ground. To achieve this, the pilot would use the Best Angle of Climb or Vx. This would be applicable if you needed to clear an obstacle or obstruction on the ground shortly after takeoff. The pilot would configure the aircraft for the Best Angle of Climb to gain the maximum altitude possible before reaching the obstacle (i.e. Tree) located beyond the runway.
Vx is slower than Vy. This makes sense, as Vx will have a slower forward speed. The slower forward speed of the airplane will provide more opportunity for altitude gain before reaching the obstacle to be cleared. An easy way to remember Vx vs. Vy, is to ask yourself which letter has more angles? The letter X has more angles than the letter Y. As such, you will always remember Vx is the Best Angle of Climb, and Vy is the Best Rate of Climb.
We’ve already looked at quite a few V-Speeds, and there are dozens more for the progressing pilot to master. We’ve touched upon some of the most important V-Speeds in you early flight training. Now that we have considered some V-Speeds, let’s look closer at some other types of Airspeed.
When you read the Airspeed on the Airspeed Indicator Flight Instrument, you are reading the Indicated Air Speed (IAS). This is simple. What you see on the dial, is the IAS.
For instance, if the Airspeed Indicator Needle is pointing to 85 knots, then the Indicated Airspeed (IAS) would obviously be 85 knots.
Calibrated Air Speed (CAS)
The Airspeed Indicator is subject to slight errors. These errors are caused by factors such as the placement of the Pitot Tube and Static Sources and flying configuration such as the degrees of flap extended. Your POH reference guide may be used to determine the amount of ‘Correction’ you need to calculate your Calibrated Airspeed. The difference between IAS and CAS may be slight, but your Aircraft Information Manual will outline the adjustments and assist you in determining your Calibrated Airspeed or CAS.
True Air Speed (TAS)
The IAS and CAS are still not your True Air Speed (TAS). To calculate TAS, you will need to factor in the Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and the Pressure Altitude. Some Airspeed Indicators have a moveable ring on the outer scale of the dial to assist with determining your TAS.
Air Density
At Sea Level, Air is very dense. This dense air helps the wings create lift, but there is also additional drag. As the aircraft ascends, the higher altitude air is less dense. This reduces drag, and allows the airplane to fly faster through the air. However, the less dense air does not ‘strike’ the Pitot Tube quite as hard, causing the Indicated Air Speed (IAS) to be less than the True Air Speed being flown through the less-dense, higher altitude air.
2% per 1,000 feet
For every 1,000 feet of altitude gain, True Air Speed (TAS) increases approximately 2% over Indicated Air Speed (IAS).
For example, if you were flying 10,000 feet above sea level, with an Indicated Air Speed of 100 knots, your True Air Speed (TAS) would be approximately 120 Knots. This is 20% faster than your Airspeed being indicated on your flight instruments. You simply take your Altitude above sea level (i.e. 10,000 feet) and increase your IAS by 2% for each 1,000 feet. (e.g. 2% times 10) This would result in a TAS of 120 knots, or a 20% increase of your IAS.
Your handy electronic Flight Computer and POH will help you accurately calculate your TAS for ground speed calculations.
As you can see, as a student pilot, you need to know quite a bit about Airspeeds, V-Speeds, IAS, CAS, TAS, and more.