C. Risk Management (RM)
1. Define the term “risk management.” (FAA-H-8083-9)
Risk management is a decision making process designed to identify hazards systematically, assess the degree of risk, and determine the best course of action. You weigh the potential costs of risks against the possible benefits of allowing those risks to stand uncontrolled.
2. How can you use the “PAVE” checklist to assess risk? (FAA-H-8083-9)
By using the PAVE checklist in all stages of flight planning, the pilot divides the risks of flight into four categories:
Pilot-In-Command—general health, physical/mental/emotional state: proficiency, currency.
Aircraft—airworthiness, equipment, performance capability.
enVironment—weather hazards, terrain, airports/runways to be used, conditions.
External pressures—meetings, people waiting at destination, etc.
3. Explain the use of a personal minimums checklist and how it can help a pilot control risk. (FAA-H8083-9)
One of the most important concepts that safe pilots understand is the difference between what is legal in terms of the regulations, and what is smart or safe in terms of pilot experience and proficiency. Pilots should set personal minimums for items in each risk category, to help control risk. These are limits unique to that individual pilot’s current level of experience and proficiency.
4. How does the “3P model” in ADM help a pilot manage risk? (FAA-H-8083-9)
The 3P model offers a simple, practical and structured way for a pilot to manage risk. In using the 3P model, the pilot:
Perceives—the given set of circumstances for a flight; identify hazards in each risk category.
Processes—by evaluating the impact of those circumstances on flight safety; what can hurt you.
Performs—by implementing the best course of action; change the situation in your favor.
5. How will you recognize and mitigate risks throughout a flight? (FAA-H-8083-9)
Once a pilot has completed the 3P decision process and selected a course of action, the process begins again because the circumstances brought about by the course of action require analysis. The decisionmaking process is a continuous loop of perceiving, processing and performing.
6. Explain the use of a personal checklist such as IMSAFE to determine personal risks. (FAA-H8083-9)
Illness—Do I have any symptoms?
Medication—Have I been taking prescription or over-the-counter drugs?
Stress—Am I under psychological pressure from the job? Do I have money, health, or family problems?
Alcohol—Have I been drinking within 8 hours? Within 24 hours?
Fatigue—Am I tired and not adequately rested?
Eating—Am I adequately nourished?